Outliers draws on dozens of biographies, scientific studies, interviews, reports and other sources, listed at the end of the book. Here are just a few. Search for others via OneSearch.
The Roseto Mystery
The Power of Clan: The Influence of Human Relationships on Heart Disease by John G. Bruhn and Stewart Wolf, 1993.
The Relative Age Effect
"Unequal Competition as an Impediment to Personal Development: A Review of the Relative Age Effect in Sport" by Jochen Musch and Simon Grondin in Developmental Review, 2001.
The 10,000 Hour Rule
"The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance" by K. Anders Ericsson, et al in Psychological Review, 1993.
The Trouble with Geniuses
Successful Intelligence: How Practical and Creative Intelligence Determine Success in Life by Robert J. Sternberg, 1997.
Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life by Annette Lareau, 2011.
The Three Lessons of Joe Flom
Birth and Fortune: The Impact of Numbers on Personal Welfare by Richard A. Easterlin, 1987.
Culture of Honor: The Psychology of Violence in the Southby Richard E. Nisbett and Dov Cohen, 1996.
The Ethnic Theory of Plane Crashes
"Cultural Diversity and Crew Communication" by Ute Fischer and Judith Orasanu, 1999. (conference paper)
NTSB Accident Reports
Rice Paddies and Math Tests
"If Man Works Hard the Land Will Not Be Lazy - Entrepreneurial Values in North Chinese Peasant Proverbs" by R. David Arkush in Modern China, 1984.
School's In: The History of Summer Education in American Public Schools by Kenneth M. Gold, 2002.
A Jamaican Story
Brown Face, Big Master by Joyce Gladwell, 2003.