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Citation Styles

In-text Citations

Within the text of the paper, use parenthetical references to briefly acknowledge the use of another author's material.

The full citation for each parenthetical reference must be included in the List of Works Cited.

Page numbers are required, unless you are referring to an entire work.


The global debt crisis is having a strong impact on women and children in developing nations (Bronstein 74).


Bronstein contends the global debt crisis is having a strong impact on women and children in developing nations (74).

How to Cite - Online Sources

An entire website with an author

Peterson, Susan. The Life of Martin Luther. Susan Peterson, 2002. Web. 24 Jan. 2006.

*MLA style no longer requires a URL, unless the site cannot be found without the URL. If needed, include the URL at the end of the entry.

An entire website with a corporate author (organization or government department)

United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Drinking Water Standards. EPA, 28 Nov. 2006. Web. 24 Jan. 2007.

An entire website with an unknown author

Margaret Sanger Papers Project. History Dept., New York U, 18 Oct. 2000. Web. 6 Jan. 2007.

An entire website with no title

Yoon, Mina. Home page. Oak Ridge Natl. Laboratory, 28 Dec. 2006. Web. 12 Jan. 2007.

A short work from (or part of) a website

If the date of publication is not available, use n.d.

Shiva, Vandana. "Bioethics:  A Third World Issue." Native Web. Native Web, n.d. Web. 22 Jan 2007

An article from a library's subscription database

Jenson, Jill D. "It's the Information Age, so Where's the Information?" College Teaching 52.3 (2004): 107-12. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Feb. 2005.

Article from an online scholarly journal (without page numbers)

If page numbers are not available, use n. pag.

Belau, Linda. “Trauma and the Material Signifier.” Postmodern Culture 11: 2 (2001): n. pag. Web. 20 Feb. 2006.

Article from an online magazine

Paulson, Steve. "Buddha on the Brain." Salon Media Group, 27 Nov. 2006. Web. 18 Jan.2007.

Article from an online newspaper

Rubin Joel. "Report Faults Charter School." Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 22 Jan. 2005. Web. 24 Jan. 2005.

Electronic (ebook) or online book

Szeman, Imre. Zones of Instability: Literature, Postcolonialism, and the Nation. Baltimore: John Hopkins UP, 2004. ebrary. Web. 29 Oct. 2008.


Boyle, Anthony T. "Re: Utopia." Message to Daniel J. Cahill. 21 June 1997. E-mail.

Podcast (downloadable lectures, interviews, or essays)

Patterson, Chris. "Will School Consolidation Improve Eductation?" Host Michaeal Quinn Sullivan. Texas PolicyCast. Texas Public Policy Foundation, 13 Apr. 2006. MP3 file. 10 Jan. 2007.

*These examples are borrowed from Documenting Sources: A Hacker Handbooks Supplement by Diana Hacker.

How to Cite - Print Sources

Book (one author)

Harbord, Janet.  The Evolution of Film: Rethinking Film Studies.  Cambridge: Polity, 2007.  Print. 

Book (more than one author)

Booth, Wayne C., Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. The Craft of Research. 2nd ed. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2003. Print. 

Book (editor)

Shell, Marc, ed. American Babel: Literatures of the United States from Abnaki to Zuni.  Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2002. Print.

Book (anonymous)

New York Public Library American History Desk Reference. New York: Macmillan, 1997. Print.

Book (corporate author; a government department or and organization)

National Research Council. Beyond Six Billion: Forecasting the World's Population. Washington: Natl. Acad., 2000. Print.

Article in a magazine

McEvoy, Dermot.  "Little Books, Big Success."  Publishers Weekly 30 Oct. 2006: 26-28.  Print.

Article in a magazine (anonymous)

"It Barks! It Kicks! It Scores!" Newsweek 30 July 2001: 12. Print.

Article in a newspaper

Jermack, Paul. "This Once, a David of the Art World Does Goliath a Favor." New York Times 13 July 2002, late ed.: B7+. Print.

Article in a scholarly journal

Piper, Andrew. "Rethinking the Print Object: Goethe and the Book of Everything." PMLA 121.1 (2006): 124-38. Print.

Article in a scholarly journal that uses only issue numbers

Kafka, Ben. "The Demon of Writing: Paperwork: Paperwork, PUblic Safety, and the Reign of Terror." Representations 98 (2007): 1-24. Print.

Article or chapter in a collection of essays or an anthology

Bordo, Susan. "The Moral Content of Nabokov's Lolita." Aesthetic Subjects. Ed. Pamela R. Matthews and David McWhirter. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2003. 125-52. Print.

Encyclopedia entry

"Japan." The Encyclopedia Americana. 2004 ed. Print.

Additional Sources

Film, DVD or videocassette

Finding Neverland. Dir. Marc Forster. Perf. Johnny Depp, Kate Winslet, Julie Christie, Radha Mitchell, and Dustin Hoffman. Miramax, 2004. DVD.

Personal interview

Akufo, Dautey. Personal interview. 11 Aug. 2007.

California State University Maritime Academy

Cal Maritime Library
200 Maritime Academy Drive
Vallejo, CA 94590 

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