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Citation Styles

General formula

The format varies depending on the type of publication but the basic formula looks like this:

Lastname, F. (date). Title(s) go here. Publisher city/name OR vol(iss)pp OR url.

  • "F" stands for first initial. Include the middle initial if it is given.
  • Date = year for books. Date = year, month for journal articles. Date = year, month, day for newspaper articles.
  • Journal, magazine, and newspaper article citations have two titles: the article title and the name of the publication. See below for examples.
  • The last piece depends on if you are citing a book, an article, or a website. See below for examples.

In-text Citations

Within the text of the paper, use parenthetical references to briefly acknowledge the use of another author's material.

The full citation for each parenthetical reference must be included in the reference list.

Page numbers are required for quotation; they are suggested for paraphrased material.

EXAMPLES

The global debt crisis is having a strong impact on women and children in developing nations (Bronstein, 1982).

--OR--

Bronstein (1982) contends the global debt crisis is having a strong impact on women and children in developing nations (p. 277).

Examples

Book, One Author

Berry, W. (1981). The gift of good land. San Francisco: NorthPoint.

Book, Two or More Authors

Winston, B. L., Reinhart, M. L., Sacker, J. R., Gottlieb, W., Oscar, B., & Harris, D.P. (1980). Nepal in crisis: Growth and stagnation at the periphery. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Book, with Editor

Del Castillo, A. R. (Ed.). (1990). Between borders: Essays on Mexicana/Chicana history. Encino: Floricanto.

Chapter in a Book

Gonzalez, R. (1987). Distinctions in western women's experience: Ethnicity, class, and social change. In S. Armitage (Ed.), The women's west (pp. 237-252). Norman: University of Oklahoma.

Article from Journal

Ayoade, J. (1989). The culture debate in Africa. The Black Scholar, 20 (2-3), 2-7.

Magazine Article

Ferguson, S. (1990, September/October). America's frustration with the homeless. Utne Reader, 41, 50-55.

Newspaper Article

Lohr, S. (2004, December 3). Health care technology is a promise unfinanced. The New York Times, p. C5.

Newspaper Article, No Author

Environmental audits being considered by EC. (1991, February 11). Wall Street Journal, p. A8.

Encyclopedia Article

Madden, E. H. (1973). Civil disobedience. In Dictionary of the history of ideas (Vol. 3, pp. 25-37). New York: Scribner's.

Examples: Sources you found online

Scholarly Article (with DOI)

Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E.D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(3), 443-449. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.78.3.443

Scholarly Article (without DOI)

Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E.D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(3), 443-449. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl/

Magazine Article

Thompson, D. (2015, Jul). A world without work. The Atlantic Monthly, 316, 50-61. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/

Newspaper Article

Nikesh, A. (2008, May 18). Online revolution: Adapt or die. Sunday Times. Retrieved from http://www.timesonline.co.uk

E-book (without DOI)

Shotten, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/html/index.asp

E-book (with DOI)

Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0071393722

Encyclopedia Article

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retreived from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/

Web Page

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2011). Aquaculture frequently asked questions. Retrieved from www.fishwatch.gov/farmed_seafood/aquaculture_faqs.htm

Audio Podcast

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink Rap Radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com

Blog posting

bfy. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisite and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula

Wiki

Psychometric assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2007 from The Psychology Wiki: http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Psychometric_assessment

Online Video/Movie

hbll production. (2010, July 15). Study like a scholar, scholar [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ArIj236UHs

APA Citation Style (video from UWF)